Malgregator

InfoSec Week 33, 2018

There is an OpenSSH user enumeration attack against all software versions on all operating systems.
It's a timing attack with proof of concept already published.
http://www.openwall.com/lists/oss-security/2018/08/15/5
https://bugfuzz.com/stuff/ssh-check-username.py

The so-called RedAlpha malware campaign targeting the Tibetan community is deploying a novel “ext4” Linux backdoor. The group is using infrastructure registered with Tsinghua1 University, China and is believed to be conducted by Chinese state-sponsored actors in support of China’s economic development goals.
https://www.recordedfuture.com/chinese-cyberespionage-operations/

The Australia’s Assistance and Access Bill, introduced this week, want to jail people for up to 10 years if they refuse to unlock their phones.
https://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2018/08/16/australians-who-wont-unlock-their-phones-could-face-10-years-in-jail/

A new research paper named "Piping Botnet - Turning Green Technology into a Water Disaster" demonstrate that the researchers were able to manipulate commercial smart IoT systems used for regulating water and electricity resources.
https://arxiv.org/abs/1808.02131

The guy with his BMW car encountered the theft attempt, where something that looked like a vandalism was actually a really smart attack against the modern alarm system.
https://mrooding.me/a-dutch-first-ingenious-bmw-theft-attempt-5f7f49a96ec8

Cloudflare analyzed the changes and improvements of a new TLS 1.3 (RFC 8446) standard that was finally published last week.
https://blog.cloudflare.com/rfc-8446-aka-tls-1-3/

New Foreshadow attack demonstrates how speculative execution can be exploited for reading the contents of Intels' SGX-protected memory as well as extracting the machine’s private attestation key.
https://foreshadowattack.eu/

Practical dictionary attacks are possible against the main mode of IPsec IKEv1/v2 standard. Successful exploitation of a weak password requires only a single active man-in-the-middle attack.
https://web-in-security.blogspot.com/2018/08/practical-dictionary-attack-on-ipsec-ike.html

If you are interested how cryptographic key management is practically done, I have written a blog Commercial Cryptographic Key Management in 2018, where I am explaining a little bit about the hardware, people and processes behind it.
https://www.malgregator.com/key-management.html

Google published BrokenType, the font fuzzing toolset that helped find lots of vulnerabilities in the Windows kernel. It includes a font mutator, generator and loader.
https://github.com/google/BrokenType

Commercial Cryptographic Key Management in 2018

Modern key management in a large organization is primarily described by bureaucratic procedures and compliance requirements due to financial liability. No one personnel hold all the keys required for a task. To minimize the need for trust in a...

InfoSec Week 32, 2018

A Comcast security flaws exposed more than 26 millions of customers’ personal information. Basically, an attacker could spoof IP address using "X-forwarded-for" header on a Comcast login page and reveal the customer’s location.
https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/nicolenguyen/a-comcast-security-flaw-exposed-millions-of-customers

According to the Check Point Research, more than 150k computers are infected with the new variant of Ramnit botnet named Black. Botnet install second stage malware with the proxy functionality.
https://research.checkpoint.com/ramnits-network-proxy-servers/

Malware infected Apple chip maker Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing. All of their factories were shut down last week, but they had already recovered from the attack.
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-08-04/tsmc-takes-emergency-steps-as-operations-hit-by-computer-virus

A flaw in the Linux kernel may cause a remote denial of service [CVE-2018-5390]. Attack require less than 2 Kbps of traffic.
https://access.redhat.com/articles/3553061

GDPR and other cookie consent scripts are used to distribute malware.
https://blog.sucuri.net/2018/08/cookie-consent-script-used-to-distribute-malware.html

Interesting blog on how criminals in Iran make money by creating Android malware apps.
https://blog.certfa.com/posts/pushiran-dl-malware-family/

Let's Encrypt root CA certificate is now trusted by all major root programs. They were dependent on a cross-signing on some systems, so this is great news!
https://letsencrypt.org/2018/08/06/trusted-by-all-major-root-programs.html

There is a really effective new attack on WPA PSK (Pre-Shared Key) passwords. Attackers can ask Access Point for the data required for offline cracking, no client traffic sniffing is needed anymore.
https://hashcat.net/forum/thread-7717.html

Innovative new research on a software implementation hardening was published with the name "Chaff Bugs: Deterring Attackers by Making Software Buggier".
The idea is simple, introduce a large number of non-exploitable bugs in the program which makes the bug discovery and exploit creation significantly harder.
https://arxiv.org/abs/1808.00659

Researchers from the University of Milan published padding oracle attack against Telegram Passport.
Don't roll your own cryptography schemes if other people depend on it...
https://pequalsnp-team.github.io/writeups/analisys_telegram_passport

A Handshake is a new experimental peer-to-peer root DNS. They have published resolver source code and have test network up and running. Looks like really promising project.
https://handshake.org/

InfoSec Week 31, 2018

Reddit got hacked. According to the investigation, it looks like hackers accessed employees 2FA protected accounts.
An attacker "compromised a few of Reddit's accounts with cloud and source code hosting providers by intercepting SMS 2FA verification codes".
https://www.reddit.com/r/announcements/comments/93qnm5/we_had_a_security_incident_heres_what_you_need_to/

A non-official French website keepass.fr using an URL similar to the popular password manager KeePass one lets you download a tampered version of the password manager with some adware in it.
https://twitter.com/JusticeRage/status/1021815597972291591

According to The Intercept_, Google is planning to launch a censored version of its search engine in China that will blacklist websites and search terms about human rights, democracy, religion, and peaceful protest.
One can only wonder whether it is some part of a broader strategy, how to spread channels of influence abroad.
https://theintercept.com/2018/08/01/google-china-search-engine-censorship/

There is a great blog published on a Trail of Bits about the recent invalid elliptic curve point attack against the Bluetooth implementations.
Give it a try if you are interested, it's really easy to read!
https://blog.trailofbits.com/2018/08/01/bluetooth-invalid-curve-points/amp/

A borough and a town in Alaska have been hit by a devastating ransomware attack, forcing employees to completely stop using computers and go back to typewriters and hand receipts.
https://mashable.com/2018/08/02/malware-alaska-town

BYOB (Build Your Own Botnet) is an open-source project that provides a framework for security researchers and developers to build and operate a basic botnet to deepen their understanding of the sophisticated malware that infects millions of devices every year and spawns modern botnets, in order to improve their ability to develop countermeasures against these threats.
https://github.com/colental/byob

FireEye wrote article about the internals of a FIN7 hacking group global operation.
https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2018/08/fin7-pursuing-an-enigmatic-and-evasive-global-criminal-operation.html

WireGuard, next generation VPN software, is finally submitted for the Linux kernel inclusion. Linus Torvalds commented the pull request:
"I've skimmed it, and compared to the horrors that are OpenVPN and IPSec, it's a work of art."
https://marc.info/?l=linux-netdev&m=153306429108040&w=2
http://lists.openwall.net/netdev/2018/08/02/124

Malhunt: automated malware search in memory dumps using volatility and Yara rules.
https://github.com/andreafortuna/malhunt

InfoSec Week 30, 2018

Researchers from the Palo Alto Networks analyzed new Mirai and Gafgyt IoT/Linux botnet campaigns. The samples used more than 11 exploits for spreading, exploiting D-Link, Dasan GPON routers.
https://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2018/07/unit42-finds-new-mirai-gafgyt-iotlinux-botnet-campaigns/

Brian Krebs published a blog post about the current status of the Universal 2nd Factor (U2F) support. Google practically eliminated employee phishing by introducing mandatory usage of the physical security keys.
https://krebsonsecurity.com/2018/07/google-security-keys-neutered-employee-phishing/

There is a new module for the CHIPSEC Security Assessment Framework to check CPU USB debug features and host Direct Connection Interface (DCI), which can be used to modify system firmware with physical access and introduce "Evil Maid" firmware attacks.
https://blog.eclypsium.com/2018/07/23/evil-mai%EF%BB%BFd-firmware-attacks-using-usb-debug/

Chinese police arrested malware developers for hacking millions of computers to steal $2 million in cryptocurrencies.
https://www.ccn.com/chinese-police-arrest-malware-developers-who-hacked-2-million-in-crypto/

Paper on a new Spectre variant called SpectreRSB was published with the name "Spectre Returns! Speculation Attacks using the Return Stack Buffer".
According to a paper „none of the known defenses including Retpoline and Intel's microcode patches stop all SpectreRSB attacks.“
https://arxiv.org/abs/1807.07940

The source code of an Exobot Android Banking Trojan has been leaked online back in May has rapidly spread in the malware community.
https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/source-code-for-exobot-android-banking-trojan-leaked-online/

Because of insufficient validation of parameters in many Bluetooth implementations, attackers can inject invalid elliptic curve parameters which aren’t checked by many implementations in an invalid public key making session keys vulnerable.
https://www.kb.cert.org/vuls/id/304725

The Cisco Talos security team found multiple vulnerabilities, including remote code execution vulnerability in the Sony IPELA E series network camera. https://blog.talosintelligence.com/2018/07/sony-ipela-vulnerability-spotlight-multiple.html

NSA declassified papers from John Tiltman, one of Britain’s top cryptanalysts during the Second World War, which reveal how pre-world war 2 Brits analyzed and decrypted Russian cryptography.
https://www.theregister.co.uk/2018/07/19/russia_one_time_pads_error_british/

InfoSec Week 29, 2018

The academics have mounted a successful GPS spoofing attack against road navigation systems that can trick humans into driving to incorrect locations. The novel part is that they are using real map data to generate plausible malicious instructions.
https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/researchers-mount-successful-gps-spoofing-attack-against-road-navigation-systems/

Folks from Cloudflare, Mozilla, Fastly, and Apple during a hackaton implemented Encrypted Server Name Indication (SNI). There are implementations in BoringSSL, NSS and picotls.
https://twitter.com/grittygrease/status/1018566026320019457

Good insight on how credit card thieves use free-to-play apps to steal and launder money from the credit cards.
https://kromtech.com/blog/security-center/digital-laundry

Chromium recently introduced Cross-Origin Read Blocking (CORB) that helps mitigate the threat of side-channel attacks (including Spectre).
https://www.chromium.org/Home/chromium-security/corb-for-developers

For anybody interested in reverse engineering, nice write up about the Smoke Loader malware bot unpacking mechanism and communication with the C&C.
https://www.cert.pl/en/news/single/dissecting-smoke-loader/

A research on how to bypass memory scanners using Cobalt Strike’s beacon payload and the gargoyle memory scanning evasion technique.
https://labs.mwrinfosecurity.com/blog/experimenting-bypassing-memory-scanners-with-cobalt-strike-and-gargoyle/

Eset researchers analyzed ongoing espionage campaign against the Ukrainian government institutions.
https://www.welivesecurity.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/ESET_Quasar_Sobaken_Vermin.pdf

The intercept summarized what the public has learned about Russian and U.S. spycraft from the Special Counsel Robert Mueller’s indictment of hackers.
https://theintercept.com/2018/07/18/mueller-indictment-russian-hackers/

Security researchers have uncovered a highly targeted mobile malware campaign that has been operating since August 2015 and found spying on 13 selected iPhones in India.
https://blog.talosintelligence.com/2018/07/Mobile-Malware-Campaign-uses-Malicious-MDM.html

There is an exploit for Ubuntu Linux (up to 4.17.4) where other users coredumps can be read via setgid directory and killpriv bypass.
https://www.exploit-db.com/exploits/45033/

InfoSec Week 28, 2018

Hackers have poisoned the Arch Linux PDF reader package named “acroread” that was found in a user-provided Arch User Repository (AUR). They have put downloader malware inside.
https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/malware-found-in-arch-linux-aur-package-repository/

Hackers took over the maintainer account of the eslint-scope and eslint-config-eslint npm packages and published malicious versions which were downloading some juicy scripts from the pastebin.com. https://eslint.org/blog/2018/07/postmortem-for-malicious-package-publishes

Backend of the TimeHop iOS application was compromised, personal records of the 21 million customers leaked.
https://www.timehop.com/security/technical

Nice journalism about how few researchers found the names and addresses of soldiers and secret agents using Strava fitness application when the company published tracking maps on the internet.
https://decorrespondent.nl/8481/heres-how-we-found-the-names-and-addresses-of-soldiers-and-secret-agents-using-a-simple-fitness-app

Lexington Insurance Company and Beazley Insurance Company are suing Trustwave over a 2009 breach. Trustwave supposedly failed to detect malware that caused a breach.
This will be huge precedent in the whole industry.
https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/security-firm-sued-for-failing-to-detect-malware-that-caused-a-2009-breach/

One email to a North American Network Operators mailing list led to a concerted effort to kick a notorious BGP hijacking factory off the Internet.
https://blog.apnic.net/2018/07/12/shutting-down-the-bgp-hijack-factory/

It looks like that the Carbanak banking malware source code was leaked.
https://malware-research.org/carbanak-source-code-leaked/

Researchers found spying malware signed using digital certificates stolen from D-Link and other Taiwanese tech-companies.
https://thehackernews.com/2018/07/digital-certificate-malware.html

InfoSec Week 27, 2018

Samsung Galaxy S9 and S9+ devices, maybe others, are texting camera photos to random contacts through the Samsung Messages app without user permission.
https://www.theverge.com/circuitbreaker/2018/7/2/17528076/samsung-phones-text-rcs-update-messages

Gentoo Linux distribution GitHub repository was compromised. Attacker removed out all the maintainers, who realized the intrusion only 10 minutes after he gained access. He add rm -rf /* to build scripts, changed README and some minor things.
https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Github/2018-06-28

Since January 2017, Stylish browser extension has been augmented with spyware that records every single website that its 2 million other users visit, then sends complete browsing activity back to its servers, together with a unique identifier.
https://robertheaton.com/2018/07/02/stylish-browser-extension-steals-your-internet-history/

Digicert Withdraws from the CA Security Council (CASC), because they "feel that CASC is not sufficiently transparent and does not represent the diversity of the modern Certificate Authority (CA) industry. Improving the ecosystem requires broad participation from all interested stakeholders, and many are being excluded unnecessarily."
Great step Digicert!
https://www.digicert.com/blog/notice-of-withdrawal-from-the-ca-security-council/

CryptoCurrency Clipboard Hijacker malware discovered by Bleeping Computer monitors for more than 2.3 million Bitcoin addresses, then replace them in memory, with the attacker address.
https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/clipboard-hijacker-malware-monitors-23-million-bitcoin-addresses/

Local root jailbreak, authorization bypass & privilege escalation vulnerabilities in all ADB broadband routers, gateways and modems. The patch is already available.
https://www.sec-consult.com/en/blog/advisories/local-root-jailbreak-via-network-file-sharing-flaw-in-all-adb-broadband-gateways-routers/

A Microsoft Security division published an analysis of the malware sample which exploited the Adobe Reader software and the Windows operating system using two zero-day exploits in a single PDF file.
https://cloudblogs.microsoft.com/microsoftsecure/2018/07/02/taking-apart-a-double-zero-day-sample-discovered-in-joint-hunt-with-eset/

Blog about why it is not helpful to use the Canvas Defender extension, a browser canvas fingerprinting countermeasure.
https://antoinevastel.com/tracking/2018/07/01/eval-canvasdef.html

Blog about the cryptographic primitives used by the North Korean Red Star operating system. The OS is mostly uses AES-256 Rijndael with dynamic S-Box modifications, but the design is evolving and the latest version of the algorithm has more differences.
https://blog.kryptoslogic.com/crypto/2018/07/03/pyongyang.html

Interesting technique how to bypass web-application firewalls by abusing SSL/TLS. An attacker can use an unsupported SSL cipher to initialize the connection to the webserver which supports that cipher, but the WAF would not be able to identify the attack because it can't view the data.
https://0x09al.github.io/waf/bypass/ssl/2018/07/02/web-application-firewall-bypass.html

Good introduction to the Linux ELF file format with some practical examples how sections look like, how to shrink the size during compilation and more.
https://0x00sec.org/t/dissecting-and-exploiting-elf-files/7267

InfoSec Week 26, 2018

A reverse shell connection is possible from an OpenVPN configuration file. So be cautious and treat ovpn files like shell scripts.
https://medium.com/tenable-techblog/reverse-shell-from-an-openvpn-configuration-file-73fd8b1d38da

Mozilla integrates Troy Hunts' Have I Been Pwned (HIBP) database of breached passwords into Firefox. They will make breach data searchable via a new tool called Firefox Monitor.
https://www.troyhunt.com/were-baking-have-i-been-pwned-into-firefox-and-1password/

The suspected ringleader behind the well known Carbanak malware is under arrest, but of course, his malware attacks live on.
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2018-06-25/the-biggest-digital-heist-in-history-isn-t-over-yet

It is possible to attack resources in the private network from the Internet with DNS rebinding attack.
"Following the wrong link could allow remote attackers to control your WiFi router, Google Home, Roku, Sonos speakers, home thermostats and more."
https://medium.com/@brannondorsey/attacking-private-networks-from-the-internet-with-dns-rebinding-ea7098a2d325

Wi-Fi Alliance Introduces Wi-Fi Certified WPA3 Security. Again with a questionable cryptography, but we will see. That's how industrial alliances with expensive membership works.
https://www.wi-fi.org/news-events/newsroom/wi-fi-alliance-introduces-wi-fi-certified-wpa3-security

IETF published draft of Issues and requirements for Server Name Indication (SNI) encryption in TLS.
The draft lists known attacks against SNI encryption, discusses the current "co-tenancy fronting" solution, and presents requirements for future TLS layer solutions.
https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-tls-sni-encryption-03

The unpatched WordPress vulnerability allows code execution for authors. Exploiting the vulnerability grants an attacker the capability to delete any file of the WordPress installation or any other file the PHP process user has the proper permissions to delete.
https://blog.ripstech.com/2018/wordpress-file-delete-to-code-execution/

Researchers identified three attack vectors against LTE (Long-Term Evolution, basically 4G) on layer 2 - an active attack to redirect network packets, a passive identity mapping attack, and website fingerprinting based on resource allocation.
https://alter-attack.net/

Cisco Talos team releases ThanatosDecryptor, the program that attempts to decrypt certain files encrypted by the Thanatos malware.
https://github.com/Cisco-Talos/ThanatosDecryptor

DEDA is a tool that gives the possibility to read out and decode color tracking dots which encode information about the printer. It also allows anonymisation to prevent arbitrary tracking.
https://github.com/dfd-tud/deda

InfoSec Week 25, 2018

Marcus Brinkmann demonstrated how some configuration options in the GnuPG allow remote attackers to spoof arbitrary signature. He used the embedded “filename” parameter in OpenPGP literal data packets, together with the verbose option set in their gpg.conf file.
https://neopg.io/blog/gpg-signature-spoof/

Tapplock Smart Lock has critical bugs making it a trivial protection. They are using the AES key derived from the MAC address, so anyone with a Bluetooth enabled smartphone can pick up the key upon getting to a smart lock Bluetooth range.
https://latesthackingnews.com/2018/06/16/tapplock-smart-lock-is-having-a-bad-time-two-bugs-reported-in-one-week/

Crooks are injecting credit card stealing backdoor to the config files of a hacked Magento e-commerce platforms. They can reinfect the rest of code base over and over again with the config load.
https://thehackernews.com/2018/06/magento-security-hacking.html

Updated Satori botnet began to perform network wide scan looking for exploitable XiongMai uc-httpd 1.0.0 devices (CVE-2018-10088).
https://blog.netlab.360.com/botnets-never-die-satori-refuses-to-fade-away-en/

Baby Monitors in the USA were hacked via obscure Chinese IoT cloud. The woman from the Facebook post claims that someone controlled the camera remotely and spied on her, possibly listened in to conversations.
https://www.sec-consult.com/en/blog/2018/06/true-story-the-case-of-a-hacked-baby-monitor-gwelltimes-p2p-cloud/

OpenBSD disables Intel's hyper-threading due to possible exploitable spectre-class bugs in the architecture.
https://www.mail-archive.com/source-changes@openbsd.org/msg99141.html

Linux is getting support for in-kernel hibernation encryption. Encrypts disk-image memory, thereby increasing the general security of full-disk encryption on Linux and reducing the attack surface.
http://lkml.iu.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/1806.2/03567.html

OTSECA - (ot)her (sec)urity (a)wareness is an open source security auditing tool to search and dump system configuration. It allows you to generate reports in HTML or RAW-HTML formats.
https://github.com/trimstray/otseca


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